Citing Sources using APA, MLA, Chicago, ASA, ESA (Ecology) Style, CSE Scientific Style
The following links are recommended sources to help you with citing sources using one of the three major citation styles (APA, MLA, or Chicago Style), or come visit our Center. We've also added Ecology Style from the Journal of Ecology. If your citation style is not one of the big three or Ecology, we can still work with you! Please make an appointment with one of our tutors.
APA Style Guide
- WMC's Quick Guide to APA Style (PDF, 498KB). APA is the most common style in psychology and social sciences.
- APA's "Basics of APA Style" slideshow tutorial (provides overview of APA manuscript formatting, reducing bias in language, creating reference list; includes links at the end with sample paper and references).
- Purdue's OWL APA Guide: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/
- Purdue OWL provides a useful overview of APA style as well as the general style guide (how to format research papers and incorporate in-text citations and references.)
- Sample paper in APA Style (courtesy of Purdue OWL).
- How to cite block quotes APA Style: Samples.
- How to cite a source cited in another source: APA.org example. Another example.
- How to create references/in text citation for electronic images (website, google images); how to create in-text citation of figures (graphs/tables).
MLA Style Guide
- WMC's Quick Guide: What's New with MLA's 8th Edition (PDF, 228KB)
- Purdue OWL's MLA Guide: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
OWL provides general format and style guide for writing papers in MLA style, the most commonly used style in liberal arts and humanities.
- MLA explains changes to the eighth edition at this link.
The Chicago Manual of Style Online
- WMC's Quick Guide to Chicago Style: Notes/Bib system (PDF, 441KB)
- WMC's Quick Guide to Chicago Style: Author/Date system (PDF, 493KB)
- Chicago Manual of Style Online--Quick Guide: http://chicagomanualofstyle.org
- Sample paper in two Chicago Style systems: Notes-Bib and Author-Date System (courtesy of Purdue OWL)
American Sociological Society (ASA) Style
- WMC's Quick Guide to ASA Style
- ASA's Tips for ASA Style (4th ed)
- Purdue OWL: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing
ESA (Ecological Society of America) Style
CSE (Council of Science Editors), Scientific Style
- CSE Quick Guide for three systems of in-text references and end references.
The Bedford St. Martin's Sample Document Gallery
Sometimes the best way to understand the wonderful world of citation is view a sample. This website offers you papers in MLA, APA, and Chicago (in the Humanities section); business and technical writing samples; and samples from the sciences.
General Guide to Researching and Documenting Sources (Purdue University)
- Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL) online guide offers useful information and advice. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/index.html